Kolby KickingWoman, of Indian Country Today, has reviewed an exciting article about the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling that the Muscokgee (Creek) Nation's reservation boundaries stand.
"In the 5-4 decision, the nation’s highest court said Congress never explicitly “disestablished” the 1866 boundaries of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation.
“Today we are asked whether the land these treaties promised remains an Indian reservation for purposes of federal criminal law. Because Congress has not said otherwise, we hold the government to its word," according to the majority opinion written by Justice Neil Gorsuch.
Gorsuch was joined in the majority by Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Stephen Breyer, Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan."
"Tribal sovereignty refers to the right of American Indians and Alaska Natives to govern themselves. The U.S. Constitution recognizes Indian tribes as distinct governments and they have, with a few exceptions, the same powers as federal and state governments to regulate their internal affairs. Sovereignty for tribes includes the right to establish their own form of government, determine membership requirements, enact legislation and establish law enforcement and court systems."
For more information,
- Muscogee (Creek) Nation
- Muscogee (Creek) Nation statement regarding U.S. Supreme Court decision Press Release. July 9, 2020.
- Muscogee (Creek) Nation History
- Choctaw Nation
- Supreme Court of the United States
- No. 18-9526 McGirt v. Oklahoma (07/09/2020), Certiorari to the Court of Criminal Appeals of Oklahoma [PDF]
- No. 18-9526 Jimcy McGirt v. Oklahoma
- National Congress of American Indians
- Congressional Delegation Reacts to Supreme Court Opinion on McGirt v. Oklahoma Press Release.
- July 9, 2020.
- "An Issue of Sovereignty"
- The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), January 2013.
- "Understanding Tribal Sovereignty: The Native American Rights Fund"
- John E. Echohawk, Penn Museum, Vol 55 Issue 3, 2013.
- U.S. Department of the Interior Indian Affairs
- National Indian Law Library | Native American Rights Fund
- Reconstruction Treaties | Oklahoma Historical Society Encyclopedia
- Library of Congress
- Indigenous Law Portal
- October 1866 Map "Indian Territory, with part of the adjoining state of Kansas, etc." Map, United States Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, War Department.
- "Prepared from the Map of Danl. C. Major, U.S. Astt. showing the boundaries of the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations, the Creek, Seminole, and Leased Indian Country established by authority of the Commissioners of Indian Affairs in 1858-59. and from Lieut. Col. J.E. Johnston's Map of the Southern Boundary of Kansas in 1857. The Map of the Creek Country by Lieut. L. C. Woodruff, Topographical Engineers, in 1850-51."
- 1889 Map "Map of the Indian Territory showing Oklahoma country:, Rand McNally and Company, General Land Office.
- Trail of Tears | Museum of the Cherokee Indian
- Unto These Hills Outdoor Drama | Trail of Tears in Cherokee, NC
- Cherokee Historical Association, Oconaluftee Indian Village.
- Trail of Tears National Historic Trail | National Park Service
- Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee
- Extended Interview: Choctaw scholar Ian Thompson on the Trail of Tears PBS Video, 2018.
- Theda Perdue, The Cherokee Nation and The Trail of Tears PBS Video, 2008.
- ᏅᏃᎯ ᏚᎾᏠᏱᎸᎢ | The Trail of Tears: A Story of Cherokee Removal Interactive Educational Module
- 360°Native Knowledge, National Museum of the American Indian.
- An indigenous peoples' history of the United States. [EBSCOHost; OSU login required.]
- Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, Beacon Press, 2014.
- Print copies available in the OSU Libraries.
- National Museum of the American Indian
- Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indians Conference YouTube Video Playlist, 2014.
- Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations Exhibition
- Nation to Nation Exhibition Introduction YouTube Video, 2015.
- Statutes of the United States Concerning Native Americans
- Yale Law School Lillian Goldman Law Library, The Avalon Project.
- National Archives | American Indian Records in the National Archives
- American Indian Treaties
- Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations YouTube. November 20, 2014.
- Tribal Connections Map | U.S. Forest Service
- "designed to illustrate the relationship between lands administered by the Forest Service, Indian lands, and lands ceded to the United States as documented in the 67 maps from "Indian Land Cessions in the United States", compiled by Charles C. Royce and published as the second part of the two-part Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1896-1897."
- Digitized Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Charles J. Kappler. Hathi Trust Digital Library.
- Treaty with the Creeks, 1866 page 718-723 out of 844. [PDF available]
- Digitized Indian land cessions in the United States. Charles C. Royce and Cyrus Thomas. Library of Congress.
- "Oklahoma is- and always has been- Native land"
- Dwanna L. McKay, The Conversation, July 16, 2020.
- "Supreme Court Rules That About Half of Oklahoma is Native American Land", Laurel Wamsley, July 9, 2020.
- Treaties Between The U.S. Government and Native Nations| Inter(Nation)al | NPR YouTube Video, 2017.
- Why Treaties Matter YouTube Video, 2017.
- "Landmark Supreme Court Ruling Affirms Native American Rights in Oklahoma"
- Jack Healy and Adam Liptak, The New York Times, Updated July 11, 2020.
- "Supreme Court takes up sovereignty case amid coronavirus crisis in Indian Country"
- Acee Agoyo, Indianz.com, May 11, 2020.