|Marti Chaatsmith lecturing on Tribal Participation and the Preservation of Ohio Earthworks. Image Courtesy of Timothy E. Black, DMIN Photography.|
She opened her lecture up by stating that all these lands in Ohio had been loved and revered by Ancient Indians. Every step we take throughout our day is placed on lands that had been understood by people long before the settlement of the area by whites during the 18th century.
In fact, early American settlement in the Ohio region had functioned by pushing Indians off the lands and plowing flat ancient mounds in order to claim private property. Anything considered Indian was targeted, including; towns, fields, graves, and earthworks.
By the mid-1800s, the last remaining Ohio Indian tribes were forced to cede lands in the name of American advancement. The lasting result of expansion into Ohio, she stated, “There are no federally recognized Indian tribes in Ohio today.”
Without the help of federally recognized tribal support, private property owners are given free reign over any ancient Indian structures or artifacts that were created long before lands had been seized.
In Newark, all but the Great Circle and the Octagon earthworks had been destroyed in this way.
The understanding and reverence for the earthworks that Indians exhibited for two-thousand years had also been lost when forced removal occurred; within a century white settlers had destroyed a large majority of the ancient structures across Ohio.
Within the past few years the Newark Earthworks Center has reached out to tribal communities, like the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma and the Pokagon Band of Potawatomi in Michigan, and has gained support in achieving World Heritage Status for the Ohio Earthworks; which would help protect the structures from any future damage.
With the support of Indian tribes across the country comes a renewed appreciation and respect for the Ohio Earthworks and in the efforts made to preserve them in their natural state.
The Ohio Earthworks stood as a representation of a highly complex society who had gained the respect of many generations of people after them, which is why the mounds had lasted for thousands of years. Continued support from American Indian tribes will help raise an understanding and awareness for preserving the Earthworks while also serving as a way for individuals to connect with the past.
For more information,
- Comanche Nation
- Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma
- Newark Earthworks Center
- U.N. World Conference on Indigenous Peoples
- Administration for Native Americans
- ACF Tribal and Native American Resources
- Timeline of American Indian Removals
- Oklahoma Historical Society
- Federally Recognized Tribes by State
- National Conference of State Legislatures
- Virtual First Ohioans
- Ancient Ohio Trail
- Earthworks Timeline
- Fort Ancient
- Newark Earthworks
- Serpent Mound
- Mound City
- Ohio History Connection
- World Heritage Ohio
- National Park Service's World Heritage Page
- UNESCO World Heritage
- The Ancient Earthworks Project Blog
- Dr. Bill Romain
- The Archaeoastronomy of the Newark Earthworks
- January 9, 2014.
- Octagon Earthworks' Alignment with Moon is Likely No Accident
- January 8, 2014.
- A New & Extended Case for Lunar (& Solar) Astronomy at the Newark Earthworks
- July 24, 2013.
- Sun Dagger: America's Stonehenge
- The Mystery of Chaco Canyon
- Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley
- Squier & Davis
- World Digital Library
- First American Art Magazine
- Ahalenia: Native American Art History, Writing, Theory, and Practice Blog
- National NAGPRA
- Native American Rights Fund
- National Museum of the American Indian
- Ohio Historic Preservation Office
- Chickasaw Cultural Center
- National Congress of American Indians
- Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma
- A Sunwheel for the Campus
- Ohio History Central
- Stickball (a ne jo di)
- Cherokee Nation
- Choctaw Stickball
- Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians
- UGA Flying Rats Toli, University of Georgia
- The History of Lacross
- Thomas Vennum Jr., USLacrosse: The National Governing Body of Lacrosse.
- World Series Stickball
- Choctaw Indian Fair
- George Caitlin's Obsession
- Bruce Watson, Smithsonian Magazine, December 2002.
- Smithsonian American Art Museum and the Renwick Gallery
- "Ball-play of the Choctaw--Ball Down", 1834-1835.
- "Ball-Play of the Choctaw--ball up", 1834-1835.
- "Ball-Play of the Choctaw--Ball Up", 1846-1850.
- "Ball-play Dance, Choctaw", 1834-1835.
- "Ball Players"
- "Ball-play of the Women, Prairie du Chien", 1835-1836.
- "Ah-nó-je-nahge, He Who Stands on Both Sides, a Distinguished Ball Player"
- "Tul-lock-chísh-ko, Drinks the Juice of the Stone", 1834.
- "Tul-lock-chísh-ko, Drinks the Juice of the Stone, in Ball-player's Dress", 1834.
- "We-chúsh-ta-dóo-ta, Red Man, a Distinguished Ball Player", 1835.
- "Ballplayers--no. 21", 1985.66.386,590R
- "Ball-Playing Dance--no. 22", 1985.66.386,599P
- "The Ball Play Dance--no. 22", 1985.66.386,590S
- "Ball Play (La Crosse)", 1966.48.69
- "Ball Play--no. 23", 1985.66.386,599Q.
- "Indian Ball Players--no. 23", 1985.66.386,590T
- On the Prairie Diamond: the weblog of LeAnne Howe
- Dustin Mater, Saatchi Art
- Professor Donald L. Fixico (Shawnee, Sac & Fox, Muscogee Creek and Seminole)
- Arizona State University
- "Singing at a Center of the Indian World"*
- American Indian Quarterly, Summer 2013, Vol. 37 Issue 3, pg 180-198.